The Three Rs tenet (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) guides scientists on the ethical use of animals in science.
- Replacement refers to methods which avoid or replace the use of animals in an area where animals would otherwise have been used
- Reduction refers to any strategy that will result in fewer animals being used
- Refinement refers to the modification of husbandry or experimental procedures to minimize pain and distress
The Five Freedoms Are:
- Freedom from hunger and thirst (by ready access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigour).
- Freedom from discomfort (by providing an appropriate environment including shelter and a comfortable resting area).
- Freedom from pain, injury and disease (by prevention or rapid diagnosis and treatment).
- Freedom to express normal behaviour (by providing sufficient space, proper facilities and company of the animal’s own kind).
- Freedom from fear and distress (by ensuring conditions and treatment which avoid mental suffering).